Source code for pykka._proxy

from __future__ import absolute_import

import logging

from pykka import ActorDeadError, _compat, messages


__all__ = ['ActorProxy']

logger = logging.getLogger('pykka')


[docs]class ActorProxy(object): """ An :class:`ActorProxy` wraps an :class:`ActorRef <pykka.ActorRef>` instance. The proxy allows the referenced actor to be used through regular method calls and field access. You can create an :class:`ActorProxy` from any :class:`ActorRef <pykka.ActorRef>`:: actor_ref = MyActor.start() actor_proxy = ActorProxy(actor_ref) You can also get an :class:`ActorProxy` by using :meth:`proxy() <pykka.ActorRef.proxy>`:: actor_proxy = MyActor.start().proxy() **Attributes and method calls** When reading an attribute or getting a return value from a method, you get a :class:`Future <pykka.Future>` object back. To get the enclosed value from the future, you must call :meth:`get() <pykka.Future.get>` on the returned future:: print(actor_proxy.string_attribute.get()) print(actor_proxy.count().get() + 1) If you call a method just for it's side effects and do not care about the return value, you do not need to accept the returned future or call :meth:`get() <pykka.Future.get>` on the future. Simply call the method, and it will be executed concurrently with your own code:: actor_proxy.method_with_side_effect() If you want to block your own code from continuing while the other method is processing, you can use :meth:`get() <pykka.Future.get>` to block until it completes:: actor_proxy.method_with_side_effect().get() If you're using Python 3.5+, you can also use the ``await`` keyword to block until the method completes:: await actor_proxy.method_with_side_effect() If you access a proxied method as an attribute, without calling it, you get an :class:`CallableProxy`. **Proxy to itself** An actor can use a proxy to itself to schedule work for itself. The scheduled work will only be done after the current message and all messages already in the inbox are processed. For example, if an actor can split a time consuming task into multiple parts, and after completing each part can ask itself to start on the next part using proxied calls or messages to itself, it can react faster to other incoming messages as they will be interleaved with the parts of the time consuming task. This is especially useful for being able to stop the actor in the middle of a time consuming task. To create a proxy to yourself, use the actor's :attr:`actor_ref <pykka.Actor.actor_ref>` attribute:: proxy_to_myself_in_the_future = self.actor_ref.proxy() If you create a proxy in your actor's constructor or :meth:`on_start <pykka.Actor.on_start>` method, you can create a nice API for deferring work to yourself in the future:: def __init__(self): ... self._in_future = self.actor_ref.proxy() ... def do_work(self): ... self._in_future.do_more_work() ... def do_more_work(self): ... To avoid infinite loops during proxy introspection, proxies to self should be kept as private instance attributes by prefixing the attribute name with ``_``. **Examples** An example of :class:`ActorProxy` usage: .. literalinclude:: ../../examples/counter.py :param actor_ref: reference to the actor to proxy :type actor_ref: :class:`pykka.ActorRef` :raise: :exc:`pykka.ActorDeadError` if actor is not available """ #: The actor's :class:`pykka.ActorRef` instance. actor_ref = None def __init__(self, actor_ref, attr_path=None): if not actor_ref.is_alive(): raise ActorDeadError('{} not found'.format(actor_ref)) self.actor_ref = actor_ref self._actor = actor_ref._actor self._attr_path = attr_path or tuple() self._known_attrs = self._introspect_attributes() self._actor_proxies = {} self._callable_proxies = {} def _introspect_attributes(self): """Introspects the actor's attributes.""" result = {} attr_paths_to_visit = [[attr_name] for attr_name in dir(self._actor)] while attr_paths_to_visit: attr_path = attr_paths_to_visit.pop(0) if not self._is_exposable_attribute(attr_path[-1]): continue attr = self._actor._introspect_attribute_from_path(attr_path) if self._is_self_proxy(attr): logger.warning( ( '{} attribute {!r} is a proxy to itself. ' 'Consider making it private by renaming it to {!r}.' ).format( self._actor, '.'.join(attr_path), '_' + attr_path[-1] ) ) continue traversable = self._is_traversable_attribute(attr) result[tuple(attr_path)] = { 'callable': self._is_callable_attribute(attr), 'traversable': traversable, } if traversable: for attr_name in dir(attr): attr_paths_to_visit.append(attr_path + [attr_name]) return result def _is_exposable_attribute(self, attr_name): """ Returns true for any attribute name that may be exposed through :class:`ActorProxy`. """ return not attr_name.startswith('_') def _is_self_proxy(self, attr): """Returns true if attribute is an equivalent actor proxy.""" return attr == self def _is_callable_attribute(self, attr): """Returns true for any attribute that is callable.""" return isinstance(attr, _compat.Callable) def _is_traversable_attribute(self, attr): """ Returns true for any attribute that may be traversed from another actor through a proxy. """ return ( getattr(attr, '_pykka_traversable', False) is True or getattr(attr, 'pykka_traversable', False) is True ) def __eq__(self, other): if not isinstance(other, ActorProxy): return False if self._actor != other._actor: return False if self._attr_path != other._attr_path: return False return True def __repr__(self): return '<ActorProxy for {}, attr_path={!r}>'.format( self.actor_ref, self._attr_path ) def __dir__(self): result = ['__class__'] result += list(self.__class__.__dict__.keys()) result += list(self.__dict__.keys()) result += [attr_path[0] for attr_path in list(self._known_attrs.keys())] return sorted(result) def __getattr__(self, name): """Get a field or callable from the actor.""" attr_path = self._attr_path + (name,) if attr_path not in self._known_attrs: self._known_attrs = self._introspect_attributes() attr_info = self._known_attrs.get(attr_path) if attr_info is None: raise AttributeError('{} has no attribute {!r}'.format(self, name)) if attr_info['callable']: if attr_path not in self._callable_proxies: self._callable_proxies[attr_path] = CallableProxy( self.actor_ref, attr_path ) return self._callable_proxies[attr_path] elif attr_info['traversable']: if attr_path not in self._actor_proxies: self._actor_proxies[attr_path] = ActorProxy( self.actor_ref, attr_path ) return self._actor_proxies[attr_path] else: message = messages.ProxyGetAttr(attr_path=attr_path) return self.actor_ref.ask(message, block=False) def __setattr__(self, name, value): """ Set a field on the actor. Blocks until the field is set to check if any exceptions was raised. """ if name == 'actor_ref' or name.startswith('_'): return super(ActorProxy, self).__setattr__(name, value) attr_path = self._attr_path + (name,) message = messages.ProxySetAttr(attr_path=attr_path, value=value) return self.actor_ref.ask(message)
[docs]class CallableProxy(object): """Proxy to a single method. :class:`CallableProxy` instances are returned when accessing methods on a :class:`ActorProxy` without calling them. Example:: proxy = AnActor.start().proxy() # Ask semantics returns a future. See `__call__()` docs. future = proxy.do_work() # Tell semantics are fire and forget. See `defer()` docs. proxy.do_work.defer() """ def __init__(self, actor_ref, attr_path): self.actor_ref = actor_ref self._attr_path = attr_path
[docs] def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs): """Call with :meth:`~pykka.ActorRef.ask` semantics. Returns a future which will yield the called method's return value. If the call raises an exception is set on the future, and will be reraised by :meth:`~pykka.Future.get`. If the future is left unused, the exception will not be reraised. Either way, the exception will also be logged. See :ref:`logging` for details. """ message = messages.ProxyCall( attr_path=self._attr_path, args=args, kwargs=kwargs ) return self.actor_ref.ask(message, block=False)
[docs] def defer(self, *args, **kwargs): """Call with :meth:`~pykka.ActorRef.tell` semantics. Does not create or return a future. If the call raises an exception, there is no future to set the exception on. Thus, the actor's :meth:`~pykka.Actor.on_failure` hook is called instead. .. versionadded:: 2.0 """ message = messages.ProxyCall( attr_path=self._attr_path, args=args, kwargs=kwargs ) return self.actor_ref.tell(message)
[docs]def traversable(obj): """Marks an actor attribute as traversable. The traversable marker makes the actor attribute's own methods and attributes available to users of the actor through an :class:`~pykka.ActorProxy`. Used as a function to mark a single attribute:: class AnActor(pykka.ThreadingActor): playback = pykka.traversable(Playback()) class Playback(object): def play(self): return True This function can also be used as a class decorator, making all instances of the class traversable:: class AnActor(pykka.ThreadingActor): playback = Playback() @pykka.traversable class Playback(object): def play(self): return True The third alternative, and the only way in Pykka < 2.0, is to manually mark a class as traversable by setting the ``pykka_traversable`` attribute to :class:`True`:: class AnActor(pykka.ThreadingActor): playback = Playback() class Playback(object): pykka_traversable = True def play(self): return True When the attribute is marked as traversable, its methods can be executed in the context of the actor through an actor proxy:: proxy = AnActor.start().proxy() assert proxy.playback.play().get() is True .. versionadded:: 2.0 """ if hasattr(obj, '__slots__'): raise Exception( 'pykka.traversable() cannot be used to mark ' 'an object using slots as traversable.' ) obj._pykka_traversable = True return obj